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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

Double diabetes: A distinct high‐risk group?

Kietsiriroje, Noppadol, Pearson, Sam, Campbell, Matthew, Ariëns, Robert A. S. and Ajjan, Ramzi A. (2019) Double diabetes: A distinct high‐risk group? Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 21 (12). pp. 2609-2618. ISSN 1462-8902

Item Type: Article


The term double diabetes (DD) has been used to refer to individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who are overweight, have a family history of type 2 diabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. Several pieces of evidence indicate that individuals who display features of DD are at higher risk of developing future diabetes complications, independently of average glucose control, measured as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration. Given the increased prevalence of individuals with features of DD, pragmatic criteria are urgently required to identify and stratify this group, which will help with subsequent implementation of more effective personalized interventions. In this review, we discuss the potential criteria for the clinical identification of individuals with DD, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each definition. We also cover potential mechanisms of DD and how these contribute to increased risk of diabetes complications. Special emphasis is placed on the role of estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) in the diagnosis of DD, which can be easily incorporated into clinical practice and is predictive of adverse clinical outcome. In addition to the identification of individuals with DD, eGDR has potential utility in monitoring response to different interventions. T1D is a more heterogeneous condition than initially envisaged, and those with features of DD represent a subgroup at higher risk of complications. Pragmatic criteria for the diagnosis of individuals with DD will help with risk stratification, allowing a more personalized and targeted management strategy to improve outcome and quality of life in this population.

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Depositing User: Leah Maughan


Item ID: 13012
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1462-8902
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Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Noppadol Kietsiriroje: ORCID iD
ORCID for Matthew Campbell: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 21 Jan 2021 15:04
Last Modified: 21 Jan 2021 15:15


Author: Noppadol Kietsiriroje ORCID iD
Author: Matthew Campbell ORCID iD
Author: Sam Pearson
Author: Robert A. S. Ariëns
Author: Ramzi A. Ajjan

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Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Nursing and Health Sciences

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