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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

A Business Model for Additive Manufacturing of Recycled Plastics towards Sustainability

Haishang, Wu, Mehrabi, Hamid, Naveed, Nida and Karagiannidis, Panagiotis (2022) A Business Model for Additive Manufacturing of Recycled Plastics towards Sustainability. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. ISSN 1433-3015

Item Type: Article


The manufacturing landscape is ever-changing, and one of the most significant driving forces is the emergence of additive manufacturing (AM), which enables cost-effective and small-scale production towards sustainability. To better align AM with manufacturing in suitable applications, this study proposes a business model in terms of the cost pattern and scaling production supported by three key concepts: standardisation, localisation and collaboration.
The ambiguity of the cost calculation is one of the key factors slowing down AM progress, and a lack of a cost pattern affects decision-making when applying AM to appropriate applications. The business model in this study is focused on applying the data collected from previous research - Collection-Recycling-Manufacturing (CRM) model to discover implications of AM processes on the road to sustainable manufacturing. The novel business model envisions the nature of AM characteristics, and their linkages to cost patterns, so AM applications can be integrated into a cost-effective process. This study contributes qualitative analysis in the cost patterns’ integration. Through this integration, the business model mediates the gap between technologies and applications via the formulas of cost pattern, so AM can perform its appropriate role in the industry mainstream.
The cost modeling, proposed in this study, derives generic formulas via the unit cost of tooling, molding, machine, materials, design, miscellaneous cost, and the batch size. Business model applies the “Divide-and-Conquer” concept, Convergence effect, and data analysis to support quantitative analysis. The model can calculate total cost per unit and accuracy is close to 100%. Through the novelty of this model, AM and conventional manufacturing (CM) cost benchmarking and decision support functions are enabled to aid in stakeholder decision-making. Eventually, appropriate AM technologies and processes can synchronise with localisation, standardisation, and collaboration and ultimately, the impact of AM towards sustainable manufacturing.

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More Information

Uncontrolled Keywords: Sustainability Collaboration Additive manufacturing Localisation Cost model Home-based manufacturing
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Nida Naveed


Item ID: 14826
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1433-3015
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Hamid Mehrabi: ORCID iD
ORCID for Nida Naveed: ORCID iD
ORCID for Panagiotis Karagiannidis: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2022 11:23
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2022 12:19


Author: Hamid Mehrabi ORCID iD
Author: Nida Naveed ORCID iD
Author: Panagiotis Karagiannidis ORCID iD
Author: Wu Haishang

University Divisions

Faculty of Technology


Engineering > Mechanical Engineering

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