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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

Functionally Graded Additive Manufacturing for Orthopedic applications

Rouf, Saquib, Malik, Abrar, Raina, Ankush, Haq, Mir Irfan Ul, Naveed, Nida, Zolfagharian, Ali and Bodaghi, Mahdi (2022) Functionally Graded Additive Manufacturing for Orthopedic applications. Journal of Orthopaedics, 33 (11). pp. 70-80.

Item Type: Article


Background: Additive Manufacturing due to its benefits in developing parts with complex geometries and shapes, has evolved as an alternate manufacturing process to develop implants with desired properties. The structure of human bones being anisotropic in nature is biologically functionally graded i,e. the structure possesses different properties in different directions. Therefore, various orthopedic implants such as knee, hip and other bone plates, if functionally graded can perform better. In this context, the development of functionally graded (FG) parts for orthopedic application with tailored anisotropic properties has become easier through the use of additive manufacturing (AM).
Objectives and Rationale: The current paper aims to study the various aspects of additively manufactured FG parts for orthopedic applications. It presents the details of various orthopedic implants such as knee, hip and other bone plates in a structured manner. A systematic literature review is conducted to study the various material and functional aspects of functionally graded parts for orthopedic applications. A section is also dedicated to discuss the mechanical properties of functionally graded parts.
Conclusion: The literature revealed that additive manufacturing can provide lot of opportunities for development of functionally graded orthopedic implants with improved properties and durability. Further, the effect of various FG parameters on the mechanical behaviour of these implants needs to be studied in detail. Also, with the advent of various AM technologies, the functional grading can be achieved by various means e.g. density, porosity, microstructure, composition, etc. by varying the AM parameters. However, the current limitations of cost and material biocompatibility prevent the widespread exploitation of AM technologies for various orthopedic applications.

Functionally Graded Additive Manufacturing for Orthopedic applications_accepted.pdf - Accepted Version
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Depositing User: Nida Naveed


Item ID: 15128
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Nida Naveed: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 30 Sep 2022 09:03
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2022 09:03


Author: Nida Naveed ORCID iD
Author: Saquib Rouf
Author: Abrar Malik
Author: Ankush Raina
Author: Mir Irfan Ul Haq
Author: Ali Zolfagharian
Author: Mahdi Bodaghi

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Faculty of Technology


Engineering > Mechanical Engineering

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