Close menu


Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

Travel Animosity and Affinity: A Chaordic Perspective

Farmaki, Anna, Pappas, Nikolaos and Karadimitriou, Christina (2024) Travel Animosity and Affinity: A Chaordic Perspective. Journal of Travel Research. p. 211. ISSN 0047-2875 (In Press)

Item Type: Article


The aim of this study is to investigate the complex effects of animosity and affinity on travel intentions. In so doing, we draw from a sample of 400 Greek holidaymakers and use complexity theory to examine the chaordic influence of animosity and affinity on their intentions to potentially travel to Russia in the near future. Contrary to previous studies on animosity and affinity which adopted a linear analytic approach, we use fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) for the examination of the derived complex configurations. The results reveal three pathways that can influence travel intentions: (i) affinity and animosity, (ii) destination characteristics, and (iii) risk perceived animosity. Overall, the study adds to extant literature on travel decision-making at times of crisis as it examines animosity and affinity concurrently, revealing the complexity underpinning travel decisions. The study also enables destination planners to improve their crisis management and resilience plans.

Travel Animosity.pdf - Accepted Version

Download (484kB) | Preview

More Information

Depositing User: Nicholas Pappas


Item ID: 17558
ISSN: 0047-2875

Users with ORCIDS

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2024 15:19
Last Modified: 15 Apr 2024 15:30


Author: Anna Farmaki
Author: Nikolaos Pappas
Author: Christina Karadimitriou

University Divisions

Faculty of Business, Law and Tourism


Tourism > Tourism

Actions (login required)

View Item (Repository Staff Only) View Item (Repository Staff Only)