Close menu


Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

Five Degrees of Happiness: Effective Smiley Face Likert Scales for Evaluating with Children

Hall, Lynne, Hume, Colette and Tazzyman, Sarah (2016) Five Degrees of Happiness: Effective Smiley Face Likert Scales for Evaluating with Children. In: IDC '16: Proceedings of the The 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children. ACM, pp. 311-321. ISBN 9781450343138

Item Type: Book Section


This paper focuses on achieving optimal responses through supporting children’s judgements, using Smiley Face Likert scales as a rating scale for quantitative questions in evaluations. It highlights the need to provide appropriate methods for children to communicate judgements, highlighting that the traditional Smiley Face Likert scale does not provide an appropriate method. The paper outlines a range of studies, identifying that to achieve differentiated data and full use of rating scales by children that faces with positive emotions should be used within Smiley Face Likert scales. The proposed rating method, the Five Degrees of Happiness Smiley Face Likert scale, was used in a large-scale summative evaluation of a Serious Game resulting in variance within and between children, with all points of the scale used.

Hall Hume Tazzyman IDC.pdf - Accepted Version

Download (2MB) | Preview
[img] PDF (Administrator use only)
6965.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (3MB) | Request a copy

More Information

Additional Information: IDC '16: Interaction Design and Children Manchester United Kingdom June, 2016
Depositing User: Lynne Hall


Item ID: 6965
Identification Number:
ISBN: 9781450343138
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Lynne Hall: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2017 13:41
Last Modified: 26 Jan 2021 11:41


Author: Lynne Hall ORCID iD
Author: Colette Hume
Author: Sarah Tazzyman

University Divisions

Faculty of Technology
Faculty of Technology > FOT Executive


Computing > Human-Computer Interaction

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item