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Effect of sand on landing knee valgus during single leg land and drop jump tasks: Possible implications for ACL injury prevention and rehabilitation.

Richardson, Mark, Chesterton, Paul, Wilkinson, Andrew and Evans, Will (2020) Effect of sand on landing knee valgus during single leg land and drop jump tasks: Possible implications for ACL injury prevention and rehabilitation. Journal of sport rehabilitation. ISSN 1056-6716

Item Type: Article


Context: Despite significant emphasis on Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury prevention, injury rates continue to rise and re-injury is common. Interventions to reduce injury have included resistance, balance and jump training elements. The use of sand-based jump training has been postulated as an effective treatment. However, evidence on landing mechanics is limited.
Objective: To determine potential differences in landing strategies and subsequent landing knee valgus when performing single leg landing (SLL) and drop jump (DJ) tasks onto sand and land, and compare between both male and female populations.
Design: A randomised repeated measures crossover design.
Setting: University Laboratory.
Participants: 31 participants (20 males, 11 females) from a university population.
Interventions: All participants completed DJ and SLL tasks on both sand and land surfaces.
Main Outcome Measures: 2-dimensional Frontal Plane Projection Angle (FPPA) of knee valgus was measured in both the DJ and SLL tasks (right and left) for both sand and land conditions.
Results: FPPA was lower (moderate to large effect) for SLL in sand compared to land in both legs (Left: 4.3⁰ ±2.8⁰; Right: 4.1⁰ ±3.8⁰) for females. However, effects were unclear (Left: -0.7⁰ ±2.2⁰) and trivial for males (Right: -1.1⁰ ±1.9⁰). FPPA differences for males and females performing DJ were unclear, thus more data is required. Differences in FPPA (land vs sand) with respect to grouping (sex) for both SLL (Left: 4.9⁰ ±3.0⁰) and (Right: 5.1⁰ ±4.0⁰) were both very likely higher small/ possibly moderate for females compared to males.

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More Information

Depositing User: Will Evans


Item ID: 11470
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1056-6716
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Andrew Wilkinson: ORCID iD
ORCID for Will Evans: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2020 09:51
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2020 11:01


Author: Andrew Wilkinson ORCID iD
Author: Will Evans ORCID iD
Author: Mark Richardson
Author: Paul Chesterton

University Divisions

Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Nursing and Health Sciences > Department of Sport and Excercise Sciences


Sciences > Health Sciences
Sciences > Sport Sciences

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