Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Impact around Fuel Stations in Urban Cities of KSA

Zafar, Mubashir, Zaidi, Syed Tafazzul H, Husain, Syed Shajee and Bukhari, Noreen M. (2021) Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Impact around Fuel Stations in Urban Cities of KSA. International Journal of Preventative Medicine, 12 (1). p. 91. ISSN 2008-8213

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Abstract

Abstract
Background: In Saudi Arabia, fuel dispensing facilities commonly present around the residential
places, educational institutions, and various health care facilities. Fuel pollutants such as benzene,
toluene, and xylenes (BTX) and its alkyl derivatives are harmful to human health because of their
toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the BTX
concentration levels of common pollutants in and around fuel stations and their harmful health effects
in the urban cites of KSA. Methods: Forty fuel dispensing facilities were randomly selected on the
basis of three different areas: residential, traffic intersection, and petrol pump locations (refueling
stations). Portable ambient analyzer was used for measuring BTX concentration. t‑test was applied
to determine the difference between these different areas. Results: All mean concentration values
of pollutants such as BTX around residential, traffic intersection, and fuel stations are exceeding
the limits of air quality standards values (P < 0.01). The mean levels of benzene are 10.3 and 11.07
ppm in Dammam and Khobar, respectively, and they exceed the reference level of 0.5 ppm. Hazard
quotient was more than >1, which shows that carcinogenic probability has increased those who were
living and working near fuel stations. Conclusions: The results found that the high concentration
of pollutants (BTX) is in the environment around fuel stations. The environmental contamination
associated with BTX in petrol fuel stations impulses the necessity of preventive programs to reduce
the further air quality deterioration and reduce the harmful health effects.
Keywords: Air, benzene, fuel, pollution, toluene, xylenes

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Sciences > Health Sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Psychology
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Shajee Husain
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2021 10:38
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2021 10:45
URI: http://sure.sunderland.ac.uk/id/eprint/13784
ORCID for Syed Shajee Husain: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6531-5762

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