Close menu


Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

The many faces of diabetes: is there a need for reclassification?

Sakran, Nasser, Graham, Yitka, Pintar, Tadeja, Yang, Wah, Kassir, Radwan, Willigendael, Edith, Singhal, Rishi, Kooreman, Zoe, Ramnarian, Dharmanand, Mahawar, Kamal, Parmar, Chetan, Madhok, Brijesh and Pouwels, Sjaak (2022) The many faces of diabetes: is there a need for reclassification? BMC Endocrine Disorders. ISSN 1472-6823

Item Type: Article


The alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached epidemic portions. Diabetes in its many forms and T2DM have different physiological backgrounds and are difficult to classify. Bariatric surgery (BS) is considered the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution, improves diabetes, and has been proven superior to medical management for the treatment of diabetes. The term metabolic surgery (MS) describes bariatric surgical procedures used primarily to treat T2DM and related metabolic conditions. MS is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Originally, BS was used as an alternative weight-loss therapy for patients with severe obesity, but clinical data revealed its metabolic benefits in patients with T2DM. MS is more effective than lifestyle or medical management in achieving glycaemic control, sustained weight loss, and reducing diabetes comorbidities. New guidelines for T2DM expand the use of MS to patients with a lower body mass index.
Evidence has shown that endocrine changes resulting from BS translate into metabolic benefits that improve the comorbid conditions associated with obesity, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and T2DM. Other changes include bacterial flora rearrangement, bile acids secretion, and adipose tissue effect.
This review aims to examine the physiological mechanisms in diabetes, risks for complications, the effects of bariatric and metabolic surgery and will shed light on whether diabetes should be reclassified.

14287.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (595kB) | Preview
[img] Microsoft Word
CleanRev3_Diabetes_review_BMC_version 3.docx - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (55kB)

More Information

Depositing User: Yitka Graham


Item ID: 14287
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1472-6823
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Nasser Sakran: ORCID iD
ORCID for Yitka Graham: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 13 Jan 2022 17:08
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2022 08:46


Author: Nasser Sakran ORCID iD
Author: Yitka Graham ORCID iD
Author: Tadeja Pintar
Author: Wah Yang
Author: Radwan Kassir
Author: Edith Willigendael
Author: Rishi Singhal
Author: Zoe Kooreman
Author: Dharmanand Ramnarian
Author: Kamal Mahawar
Author: Chetan Parmar
Author: Brijesh Madhok
Author: Sjaak Pouwels

University Divisions

Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Nursing and Health Sciences


Sciences > Nursing

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item