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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

Trunk kinematics of experienced riders and novice riders during rising trot on a riding simulator

Clark, Lee, Bradley, Eddie, Mackechnie-Guire, Russell, Taylor, Abbie and Ling, Jonathan (2022) Trunk kinematics of experienced riders and novice riders during rising trot on a riding simulator. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 119. ISSN 0737-0806

Item Type: Article


Asymmetry of horses and humans is widely acknowledged, but the influence of one upon the other during horse riding is poorly understood. Riding simulators are popular for education of beginners and analysis of rider biomechanics. This study compares trunk kinematics and saddle forces of 10 experienced riders (ER) and 10 novice riders (NR) performing rising trot on a simulator. Markers were placed on the 4th lumbar (L4) and 7th cervical (C7) spinous processes, and both acromion processes (AcP). Displacements in three axes of motion were tracked using 10 high-speed video cameras sampling at 240 Hz. Displacement trajectories at L4 and C7 were similar between both groups, displaying an asymmetrical butterfly pattern in the frontal plane, which reversed when changing diagonal. Comparison between groups, NR displayed greater vertical displacement and higher saddle impact forces at L4 (p=0.034), greater amplitude of medio-lateral displacement on the right diagonal between C7 and L4, and on the right diagonal while seated they rotated left (AcP) while the ER rotated right. Within group comparison demonstrated that on the right diagonal both groups produced significantly greater medio-lateral displacement at L4, and NR displayed significantly greater medio-lateral displacement between C7 and L4. On the left diagonal NR produced significantly greater vertical displacement and higher saddle impact forces.

The findings of this study suggest that ER were more stable, symmetrical, and had lower impact force on the saddle. These issues could be addressed in beginners using a simulator to avoid unnecessary stresses on horses.

Clark et al 2022 JEVS Trunk kinematics of riders.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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More Information

Uncontrolled Keywords: Equine Experience Horse Saddle Vicon
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Eddie Bradley


Item ID: 15450
Identification Number:
ISSN: 0737-0806
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Eddie Bradley: ORCID iD
ORCID for Jonathan Ling: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2022 12:54
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2023 10:01


Author: Eddie Bradley ORCID iD
Author: Jonathan Ling ORCID iD
Author: Lee Clark
Author: Russell Mackechnie-Guire
Author: Abbie Taylor

University Divisions

Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing


Sciences > Sport Sciences

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