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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules

Crum, Matthew, Elkordy, Amal, Zarara, Moataz and Elkordy, Eman Ali (2013) In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 18 (6). pp. 1379-1390. ISSN 1097-9867

Item Type: Article


Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic®F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms).

Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective.

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More Information

Depositing User: Amal Elkordy


Item ID: 3091
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1097-9867
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Amal Elkordy: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2012 07:37
Last Modified: 16 May 2022 13:00


Author: Amal Elkordy ORCID iD
Author: Matthew Crum
Author: Moataz Zarara
Author: Eman Ali Elkordy

University Divisions

Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing
Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences


Sciences > Pharmacy and Pharmacology

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