Close menu


Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

and per se &

Barkess, Donna (2015) and per se &. November 2015, Design Centre Gallery. University of Sunderland.

Item Type: Show/Exhibition


‘And per se and’, was an exhibition which explored the history and evolution of the ampersand, spanning almost 2,000 years, exploring how well the ampersand has stood the test of time.

The symbol has been pushed and pulled around artistically by typographers, calligraphers, designers and artists and is everywhere, from company logos to our computer or phone keyboards. It is also an important character in computer coding.

Arguably the most expressive and versatile of symbols, the ampersand evolved from the Latin et, meaning and. The ampersand is one of the oldest alphabetic abbreviations. By its very nature, history and definition, it is inviting and inclusive.

Its versatility is astonishing. Whatever the designing of a new font inflicts upon it, the ampersand holds its own. Still recognisable after flourishes are added, or elements of its anatomy pruned back. Looking at the ampersand within any font reveals so much about the character of the typeface.

As well as taking the viewer through the intriguing life and times of the ampersand, the exhibition featured the work of many local and international artists and designers, who submitted pieces of artwork to celebrate the beauty and versatility of the ampersand.

The work on show was wonderfully diverse, with pieces generated from a hand-built drawing machine, letterpress experimentations, calligraphic submissions, to name a few.

‘And per se and’ was open between Thursday, October 22, and November 12, 2015 at the University of Sunderland Design Centre Gallery, City Campus, Chester Road.

Full text not available from this repository.

More Information

Depositing User: Donna Barkess


Item ID: 7267
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 25 May 2017 10:28
Last Modified: 18 Dec 2019 15:40