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Design and Additive Manufacture of Functionally Graded Structures based on Digital Materials

Ituarte, Inigo Flores, Boddeti, Narasimha, Hassani, Vahid, Dunn, Martin L. and Rosen, David W. (2019) Design and Additive Manufacture of Functionally Graded Structures based on Digital Materials. Additive Manufacturing, 30 (100839). pp. 1-14. ISSN 2214-8604

Item Type: Article


Voxel-based multimaterial jetting additive manufacturing allows fabrication of digital materials (DMs) at the meso-scale (∼1 mm) by controlling the deposition patterns of soft elastomeric and rigid glassy polymers at the voxel-scale (∼90 μm). The digital materials can then be used to create heterogeneous functionally graded material (FGM) structures at the macro-scale (∼10 mm) programmed to behave in a predefined manner. This offers huge potential for design and fabrication of novel and complex bespoke mechanical structures.

This paper presents a complete design and manufacturing workflow that simultaneously integrates material design, structural design, and product fabrication of FGM structures based on digital materials. This is enabled by a regression analysis of the experimental data on mechanical performance of the DMs i.e., Young’s modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break. This allows us to express the material behavior simply as a function of the microstructural descriptors (in this case, just volume fraction) without having to understand the underlying microstructural mechanics while simultaneously connecting it to the process parameters.

Our proposed design and manufacturing approach is then demonstrated and validated in two series of design exercises to devise complex FGM structures. First, we design, computationally predict and experimentally validate the behavior of prescribed designs of FGM tensile structures with different material gradients. Second, we present a design automation approach for optimal FGM structures. The comparison between the simulations and the experiments with the FGM structures shows that the presented design and fabrication workflow based on our modeling approach for DMs at meso-scale can be effectively used to design and predict the performance of FGMs at macro-scale.

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More Information

Depositing User: Vahid Hassani


Item ID: 11181
Identification Number:
ISSN: 2214-8604
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Vahid Hassani: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 10 Oct 2019 09:47
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2020 11:30


Author: Vahid Hassani ORCID iD
Author: Inigo Flores Ituarte
Author: Narasimha Boddeti
Author: Martin L. Dunn
Author: David W. Rosen

University Divisions

Faculty of Technology > School of Engineering


Engineering > Finite Analysis
Engineering > Mechanical Engineering

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