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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

Specification of Granule Cells and Purkinje Cells.

Butts, Thomas, Rook, Victoria, Varela, Tristan, Wilson, Leigh and Wingate, Richard (2021) Specification of Granule Cells and Purkinje Cells. In: Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. Springer, p. 211. ISBN 978-3-319-97911-3

Item Type: Book Section


Granule cells and Purkinje cells are the major populations of neurons in the cerebellum. Their specification depends on a combination of regional identity and spatiotemporal cues. These are conferred by patterning systems in the early embryo that determine anteroposterior and dorsoventral positional coordinates and an age-dependent signal (or signals) whose nature is obscure. While a number of important questions remain about the nature of cerebellar progenitor pools and their precise boundaries, a variety of fate-mapping and genetic approaches have indicated that both granule cells and Purkinje cells arise from different dorsoventral domains within hindbrain rhombomere 1. Unusually, granule cell precursors undergo a subsequent transit amplification stage regulated by Purkinje cell signals, within a transient superficial germinal layer. Recent evolutionary insights suggest that this phase of Sonic hedgehog-dependent transit amplification is only found in amniotes. Evolutionarily, since secondary proliferation arose independently of granule cell specification, it is likely to be an adaptation purely for post-specification regulation of granule cell numbers.

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More Information

Depositing User: Thomas Patrick


Item ID: 17729
Identification Number:
ISBN: 978-3-319-97911-3
Official URL:

Users with ORCIDS

ORCID for Thomas Butts: ORCID iD
ORCID for Victoria Rook: ORCID iD
ORCID for Leigh Wilson: ORCID iD
ORCID for Richard Wingate: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date Deposited: 01 Jul 2024 14:55
Last Modified: 01 Jul 2024 14:55


Author: Thomas Butts ORCID iD
Author: Victoria Rook ORCID iD
Author: Leigh Wilson ORCID iD
Author: Richard Wingate ORCID iD
Author: Tristan Varela

University Divisions

Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Medicine


Sciences > Biomedical Sciences

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