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Sunderland Repository records the research produced by the University of Sunderland including practice-based research and theses.

‘How did it come to this?’ Causal network analysis in practice and service development

Unsworth, John, Lawton, Sally and Linklater, Gordon (2012) ‘How did it come to this?’ Causal network analysis in practice and service development. International Practice Development Journal, 2 (1). pp. 1-22. ISSN 2046-9292

Item Type: Article


Practice development has been widely used to support change in healthcare for more than 20 years (McCormack et al., 2006), a result there is a growing body of knowledge which, describes the process and context together with the factors that influence the outcomes of such developments. Learning from failure in practice and service development is fundamental if we are to identify and understand what factors can influence success. Too often the analysis of failure has been subjective and has relied upon anecdotal accounts. This article explains the use of the methodology developed by Miles and Huberman (1994) to inductively map how variables and factors interact to produce a particular outcome. Causal Network Analysis (CNA) is useful in exploring the factors, which can influence developments, as well as exploring what triggered the success or failure of a particular development.


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Uncontrolled Keywords: Analysis, methods, outcomes, practice development, service development
Depositing User: John Unsworth


Item ID: 9015
ISSN: 2046-9292
Official URL:

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Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2018 15:25
Last Modified: 18 Dec 2019 16:06


Author: John Unsworth
Author: Sally Lawton
Author: Gordon Linklater

University Divisions

Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing
Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing > School of Nursing and Health Sciences


Sciences > Nursing

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